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The DNA world and how does it impact our health:

The DNA world and how does it impact our health:

The word DNA is stands for deoxyribonucleic acid; it is the molecule which carries genetic information from parents to offspring. First proof, that the DNA was hereditary material given by Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty and Colin MacLeod and DNA is a double helical structure was discovered by James D. Watson and Francis H.C in 1953, it is with the collaboration with Rosalind Franklin by the experiment on the technique called X-ray crystallography, which revealed the helical shape of the DNA molecule and the Watson and Crick they realized that DNA was made up of two chains of nucleotide pairs which is basically encodes the genetic information for all living things.

The information we are talking about is basically have four chemical bases i.e., Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C) and the Thymine(T), these bases pairs combine with each other to form hydrogen bonds i.e., Adenine pair with Thymine with double bonds and Cytosine pair with Guanine with triple bonds, where it is attached with a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together a base, sugar and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Humans share about 99% of the DNA with Chimpanzees which making them our closest ancestors. One more animal which is closest to humans and very similar to chimpanzees are the BONOBOS.

There are some examples of diseases which is caused by changes in gene and DNA,

1). Huntington’s disease: It is inherited disease, which causes breakdown of the nerve cells in the brain. It is very rare disease; it usually starts at the age of 30-50 years.

2). Sickle cell disease: It is a genetic disorder, it affects haemoglobin, the molecules in red blood cells which carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. The person who has low number of RBC’s i.e., Anaemia, have the sickle cell disease.

3). Marfan syndrome: It is a genetic disorder, that affects the connective tissue by changing in the protein, which basically supports the bone, organs, muscles and tissues in our body.

4). Gaucher’s disease: It is an inherited disease, where make up of fatty substances in particular organs like liver and spleen occurs.

 

RB4J93 Medical illustration of the symptoms of Huntington’s disease in the brain

 

CONCLUSION: Here I conclude that DNA is forms the basis of life, it is the molecule which carries genetic information from parents to offsprings. By discovery of DNA structure has led to study in research, human health etc.

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